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封杀会给数字音乐格局带来什么?拆除

2015-02-07
最近业界颇为热闹,再一次把微信推到风口浪尖上,封杀阿里系短兵相接大家都懂,但拒绝网易云又所为何事。单看网易云那篇回复觉得这委屈还挺大的。我们追寻数字音乐现状来或许不难找出原因。...

1

最近业界颇为热闹,再一次把微信推到风口浪尖上,封杀阿里系短兵相接大家都懂,但拒绝网易云又所为何事。单看网易云那篇回复觉得这委屈还挺大的。我们追寻数字音乐现状来或许不难找出原因。

尽管音乐行业产值很大,但用音乐谋利的机构、平台很多都不给钱。整个行业免费在给互联网、电台、卡拉OK打工。这也造成整个音乐行业并不具有与盗版方足够的议价能力。高晓松、张亚东和小柯等人起草的《致音乐界同仁书》中称,“直到今天,互联网盗版音乐占据了几乎100%的市场,我们失去了依靠音乐版权收入再生产音乐的最后阵地。行业凋敝,人才流失,梦想破灭,尊严全无。”

相比传统盗版,网络盗版更容易,成本更低,加上网络盗版隐蔽性的特殊手段,让很多知识产权人在维权实践中举步维艰。

多年来,音乐界尝试了不少方法,比如数字加密手段、增加正版产品增值服务等等,但效果都不明显。有加密就有破解,增值产品的吸引力也不高。此外,音乐产业在产权的诉讼上经常处于劣势,即便赢了官司,拿到的赔偿也是微乎其微。违法成本极低与维权成本极高的现实窘境,极度降低了音乐产权人的维权欲望,更让众多音乐产权人丧失维权信心。

那么,网络音乐盗版真的很难解决吗?倒未必。我国网络音乐之所以如此猖獗,其关键就是多年来默许了合法盗版的存在。一方面,我国缺乏一部更完善、更严格、更具针对性的法律去维护音乐版权;另一方面,受盗版荼毒的影响,几乎所有网民认为网络音乐就应该是免费的。当人们在音乐网站随意聆听、下载歌曲时,几乎没人会在意音乐版权的问题。

这次,网易云等因盗版纠纷被限制分享,对大众来说犹如一次普法教育,更以切身使用感受强化了尊重音乐知识产权的意识。大众使用和消费理念的转变,也会在一定程度上助力打击网络音乐盗版。

目前,数字盗版正在通过多种形式和途径损害着正版音乐市场,这其中包括盗版的流媒体网站、P2P文件共享网络、网络存储空间和聚合器、盗版流媒体和流翻录以及移动应用等。这不仅是中国音乐产业独有的“病毒”,更是全球音乐产业的“共病”。

在盗版问题上,世界范围内唱片业面临的境况是同等的。随着数字技术的快速发展和互联网的兴起,包括音乐在内的各种资源在网络上疯狂地免费传递着,MP3风潮在互联网上逐渐风行,加上软件及刻录技术的日新月益,将歌曲转换成MP3文档储存在电脑上随时播放,以及同其他音乐爱好者相互交换,逐渐地成为了一种不可阻挡的趋势。

以流行音乐为例,不仅许多非法盗版商的盗版行为防不胜防,而且各种交换、下载软件的出现更是让无数网民在不需要承担任何费用的情况下,下载无所限制的内容。这一现状,致使音乐人和唱片公司的收入被严重削减。当然,经济上的损失尚且可以弥补,最可怕的是盗版已经严重影响到音乐人的创作热情。

当下,整个音乐行业的创造力已经在走下坡路。由于盗版肆虐,唱片公司和音乐人花费大量财力和精力打造的唱片,收不回成本,见不到收益。没有激励机制,谁还会做费力不讨好的事呢?市场反馈不好的话,或许还会赔了夫人又折兵。现如今,EMI、环球、BMG、索尼、华纳五大唱片公司营收不断下降,也少有好听的歌曲面世,尽是一些“精选集”,新出唱片多数是一两首“主打”和一堆粗糙简单曲目的组合。

试想,原创音乐作品越来越少,即便是免费的,网络音乐下载还能让用户提起兴趣吗?没有用户也就是没有市场需求,这种恶性循环终将会给整个音乐产业带来灭顶之灾。

因此,保护音乐知识产权不仅是法律问题,更是商业问题和经济问题。只有保护知识产权,才会保护那些有创意的人的积极性,才能推动他们的创意。只有解决掉盗版问题,网络才会带给唱片业更大的发展空间。

如今,数字音乐正处在发展的十字路口,盗版问题正在困扰着它的走向。看似前途渺茫,实则前途光明。国家出版总局已经给出了明确信号,虾米和天天动听的被限制分享就是最好的证明。很明显,国家是要通过保护知识产品,帮助网络音乐建立起一套好的商业游戏规则,从而保证互联网服务提供商(ISP)、互联网内容供应商(ICP)以及用户三方的权益。

毋庸置疑,尊重知识产权、保护知识产权已作为世界性的课题在不断升温。2015年,尊重知识产权将会成为数字音乐发展的时代主题,并以“宪法”的威严为整个行业的健康发展保驾护航。

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